Workshop Sessions

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Wednesday, Oct. 14 2015

Opening remarks

by Vlad Shalaev, Purdue University, USA
Time: 8:40 am – 8:50 am

Welcome address

by Tomas Diaz de la Rubia, Executive Director of Discovery Park, Purdue University, USA
Time: 8:50 am – 9:00 am

Session I: Atomic and Molecular Optics I

Oct. 14 (Wed), 9:00 am – 11:00 am in MRGN 121

Chair: Michael Shlesinger (Office of Naval Research, USA)

Quantum matter built from nanoscopic lattices of atoms and photons
Speaker: Jeff Kimble (Caltech, USA)
Time: 9:00 am – 9:30 am
New paradigms for optical physics emerge from atoms trapped in one and two-dimensional dielectric waveguides [1,2]. Photons propagating in the guided modes of the waveguides can mediate long-range atom-atom interactions. In a complimentary fashion, photon-photon interactions can arise by way of the underlying lattice of atoms. This new future of atom nanophotonics has the potential to provide tools for scalable quantum networks, quantum phases of light and matter, and quantum metrology. I will give an overview of theoretical prospects [1,2] and experimental progress [3] in this nascent field at the interfaces of nanophotonics, atomic physics, and quantum optics.
[1] J. S. Douglas, H. Habibian, C.-L. Hung, A. V. Gorshkov, H. J. Kimble, and D. E. Chang, Nature Photonics 9, 326 (2015).
[2] A. González-Tudela, C.-L. Hung, D. E. Chang, J. I. Cirac, and H. J. Kimble, Nature Photonics 9, 320 (2015).
[3] A. Goban, C.-L. Hung, J. D. Hood, S.-P. Yu, J. A. Muniz, O. Painter, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 063601 (2015).

Virtual photons: From Lamb’s shift and Unruh’s radiation to superradiance and solar cells

Speaker: Marlan Scully (Texas A&M Univ.)
Time: 9:30 am – 10:00 am
The effects of virtual photons are very real. The Lamb shift and Unruh radiation are examples. It may even be possible to make real advances from virtual processes in solar cells. The three main topics to be covered are:
1. The Lamb Shift Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow [1];
2. Unruh Radiation is a (Virtual) Parametric Process [2];
3. Lasing Without Inversion and Enhanced Photocell Operation via Fano Interference [3].

[1] M. Scully, “Collective Lamb Shift in Single Photon Dicke Superradiance”, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2009).
[2] M. Scully, VV. Kocharovsky, A. Belyanin, E. Fry, and F. Capasso, “Enhancing Acceleration Radiation from Ground-State Atoms via Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics”, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2003).
[3] M. Scully, “Quantum Photocell: Using Quantum Coherence to Reduce Radiative Recombination and Increase Efficiency”, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2010)."

Exploring big questions on small scales
Speaker: Eugene Demler (Harvard Univ., USA)
Time: 10:00 am – 10:30 am
I will discuss recent progress in exploring open questions of many-body quantum systems using ultracold atoms. Examples include Higgs-Anderson mode, topological states, polarons.

Beyond the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in the negative mass reference frame

Speaker: Eugene Polzik (Univ. of Copenhagen, Denmark)
Time: 10:30 am – 11:00 am
Measurements of one quadrature of an oscillator with precision beyond its vacuum state uncertainty have occupied a central place in quantum physics for decades. A squeezed state of one of the quadratures is a prominent example of a state which provides such precision. One of the first proposals for generation of such a state involves a quantum nondemolition measurement at twice the frequency of the oscillator. We have recently reported the first experimental implementation of this proposal with a magnetic oscillator. It has been widely assumed that sensing with the precision beyond the vacuum state uncertainty in both quadratures is prohibited by the uncertainty principle.  We have demonstrated that this limitation can be overcome by entangling an oscillator with a quantum reference frame and an effective negative mass. In a more general sense, this approach leads to trajectories without quantum uncertainties and to achieving new fundamental bounds on the measurement precision. Progress towards such a measurement on a mechanical oscillator will be reported.

Session II: Solid-State Quantum Systems I

Oct. 14 (Wed), 11:20 am – 12:50 pm in MRGN 121

Chair: Alexandra Boltasseva (Purdue Univ., USA)

Spin quantum memories for enhanced sensing and photon storage
Speaker: Jörg Wrachtrup (Stuttgart Univ., Germany)
Time: 11:20 am – 11:50 am
Robust and long-lived quantum memories play a key role in quantum technology. They are essential for building up large-scale quantum networks and recently also became an integral part of quantum sensors enhancing sensitivity and resolution. The talk will describe the use of nuclear spin quantum memories in diamond defect centers for sensing and quantum repeater applications.

Quantum sensing with diamond

Speaker: Fedor Jelezko (Ulm Univ., Germany)
Time: 11:50 am – 12:20 pm
I will discuss recent developments transforming quantum control tools into quantum technologies based on single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. I will present ultrasensitive MRI at the nanoscale and recently developed magnetometry protocols that use quantum error correction as a resource. Experiments with novel colour centers including silicon-vacancy (SiV) and dinitrogen-vacancy (H3) defects will also be presented.

Photons as ’glue’ for dissimilar quantum systems

Speaker: Oliver Benson (Humboldt Univ., Germany)
Time: 12:20 pm – 12:50 pm
A quantum hybrid system can be defined as consisting of two dissimilar physical systems that share a joint quantum state. Aside from being a fundamentally interesting object, a few applications, such as quantum information processors (quantum computers, quantum repeaters), have been suggested. The only way to bring two distant systems in a joint quantum state is to perform measurements on photons.
Here we report on different photon sources, which could be part of a quantum hybrid architecture or which could provide the ‘glue’ for dissimilar quantum systems.
The talk concerns on the one hand the integration of stable emitters as reliable sources and on the other hand the non-linear conversion of their photons, e.g. to the telecom band. Future directions will be discussed.

Session III: Quantum Nanophotonics I

Oct. 14 (Wed), 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm in MRGN 121

Chair: Ian Osborne (Science, UK)

Tunable plasmonic structures in the classical and quantum optical regimes
Speaker: Harry Atwater (Caltech, USA)
Time: 2:00 pm – 2:30 pm
Progress in understanding resonant subwavelength structures has fueled an explosion of interest in fundamental processes and nanophotonic devices.  The carrier density and optical properties of photonic and plasmonic nanostructures are typically fixed at the time of fabrication, but tuning of the potential and carrier density enables the photonic dispersion to be altered, yielding new approaches to active control of the spectral and angular distribution of radiative emission. In particular, coupling of the geometrically determined resonant modes of nanostructures to their material-dependent epsilon-near-zero resonances yields tunability of the amplitude and phase of emitted and scattered radiation. Examples from tunable graphene and conducting oxide metasurfaces and antenna arrays at near infrared and mid infrared wavelengths will be described.  Finally, while plasmons are usually described in a classical electromagnetic theory context, quantum coherent states emerge under single photon excitation, as illustrated by the recently reported results from several group of quantum superposition states of two plasmons.  We report latest results on visibility of coherent superposition states of single plasmons in the dispersive regime near surface plasmon resonances and implications for plasmon generation, modulation and detection in the single-to-few quanta limit.

Nano-photonic phenomena in van der Waals heterostructures

Speaker: Dmitry Basov (UC San Diego, USA)
Time: 2:30 pm – 3:00 pm
Layered van der Waals (vdW) crystals consist of individual atomic planes weakly coupled by vdW interactions, similar to graphene monolayers in bulk graphite. These materials can harbor superconductivity and ferromagnetism with high transition temperatures, emit light and exhibit topologically protected surface states. An ambitious practical goal is to exploit atomic planes of vdW crystals as building blocks of more complex artificially stacked heterostructures where each such block will deliver layer-specific attributes for the purpose of their combined functionality. We investigated van der Waals heterostructures assembled from atomically thin layers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). We observed a rich variety of optical effects due to surface plasmons in graphene and hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN. We launched, detected and imaged plasmonic, phonon polaritonic and hybrid plasmon-phonon polariton waves in a setting of an antenna based nano-infrared apparatus. Peculiar properties of hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN enabled sub-diffraction focusing in infrared frequencies. Because electronic, plasmonic and phonon polaritonic properties in van der Waals heterostructures are intertwined, gate voltage and/or details of layer assembly enable efficient control of nano-photonic effects. I will also discuss an ability to manipulate plasmonic response of in these structures at femto second time scales that we have demonstrated using a novel technique of pump-probe nano-infrared spectroscopy.

Graphene nanophotonics

Speaker: Javier García de Abajo (ICFO, Spain)
Time: 3:00 pm – 3:30 pm
Graphene plasmons have recently attracted large attention because of their excellent electrical tunability, which enable applications such as fast light modulation, improved biosensing, and quantum optics in robust solid-state environment. In this presentation, we review recent theoretical and experimental advances in these directions and explore further possibilities, such as sensing at the single-molecule level, electrical detection of single plasmons, and ultrafast transient plasmonic phenomena, with special emphasis on associated quantum phenomena.

Quantum nanophotonics is inevitable
Speaker: Nikolay Zheludev (Univ. of Southampton, UK)
Time: 3:30 pm – 4:00 pm
We provide an overview of our recent work on emerging directions in quantum nanophotonics including the sub‑Doppler study of atoms in plasmonic landscapes, observation of super-oscillations of a single photon and "remote control" of plasmonic absorption with entangled photons.

Session IV: Quantum Information & Communication I

Oct. 14 (Wed), 4:20 pm – 5:50 pm in MRGN 121

Chair: Volker Sorger (George Washington Univ., USA)

Light matter interfaces for NV center in diamond
Speaker: Alexey Akimov (Texas A&M Univ., USA)
Time: 4:20 pm – 4:50 pm
The NV center in diamond is attracting a lot of attention within the quantum information processing community. As a spin system in a clean and well-controlled environment of the diamond lattice, it exhibits outstanding performance as a quantum memory, even at room temperature. It also allows spin control with single shot optical readout and a possibility to build quantum registers even based on a single NV center. At low temperatures, NV centers have narrow optical transitions which enable interfacing between optical photons and the NV center spin states. Recently, the entanglement of two independent NV centers has been demonstrated. This makes the NV center a promising candidate for the realization of quantum repeaters. Moreover, NV centers could be used as sensitive detectors of magnetic or electric field, temperature or rotation. For all of these applications the collection of the light emitted by an NV center is the crucial point. A number of approaches has been suggested to address this issue, proposing the use of surface plasmons, manufacturing structures in diamond, cavities, etc. At the same time, the recent fast development in the field of metamaterials opened a way to create structures out of hyperbolic metamaterial using CMOS compatible materials. Using these materials may open a way to create an efficient and industry friendly interface for NV centers and, in particular for single photon sources. In this work we present our efforts on using CMOS compatible hyperbolic metamaterials and optical fibers to construct efficient single photon sources and sensing elements using nitrogen vacancy center in diamond.

Title is TBA

Speaker: Yurii Vlasov (IBM, USA)
Time: 4:50 pm – 5:20 pm
Abstract of Yurii Vlasov’s talk is TBA.

Application of four-wave mixing for quantum information

Speaker: Alexander Gaeta (Cornell Univ., USA)
Time: 5:20 pm – 5:50 pm
We apply the nonlinear optical process of four-wave mixing to the generation, shaping, and manipulation of photons for quantum information applications.

Thursday, Oct. 15 2015

Opening remarks

by Dr Peter Reynolds, Army Research Office, USA
Time: 8:45 am – 9:00 am

Session V: Quantum Information & Communication II

Oct. 15 (Thur), 9:00 am – 11:00 am in MRGN 121

Chair: Gernot Pomrenke (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, USA)

Quantum networks with atoms and photons

Speaker: Chris Monroe (Univ. of Maryland, USA)
Time: 9:00 am – 9:30 am
Laser-cooled and trapped atomic ions are standards for quantum information science, acting as qubits with unsurpassed levels of quantum coherence while also allowing near-perfect measurement. Trapped ions can be entangled locally with external laser beams that map the internal atomic qubits through their Coulomb-coupled motion; they can be entangled remotely through optical photons traveling through fibers.  I will summarize the state-of-the art in ion trap quantum networks, which will soon involve systems of 50+ fully-interacting qubits, eclipsing the performance of classical computers for certain tasks.

Complex coherent nanophotonic circuits

Speaker: Raymond Beausoleil (HP Labs, USA)
Time: 9:30 am – 10:00 am
It may be possible to harness devices with explicitly quantum behavior to perform reliable classical computations using quantum coherent feedback control. As an initial step toward this goal, we have demonstrated ultrafast switching in microscale nonlinear optical devices fabricated in amorphous silicon and gallium arsenide, and we have developed a semi-quantum photonic circuit simulator to guide us as we layout photonic circuits with hundreds of coherently interacting elements.

Coupling of quantum emitters to localized and propagating surface plasmons

Speaker: Sergey Bozhevolnyi (Univ. of Southern Denmark)
Time: 10:00 am – 10:30 am
Surface plasmon (SP) modes supported by various dielectric-metal waveguide configurations facilitate strong enhancement and (subwavelength) confinement of electromagnetic fields, enabling miniaturization of SP-based nanophotonic components and circuits while also strongly enhancing the interaction of quantum emitters (QEs) with both localized and propagating SP modes. The latter feature has important implications in quantum optics, sensing and lab-on-a-chip applications. One of the main challenges in developing future nano-scale quantum photonic circuits is to manage combining on a single chip a single photon source, waveguides, modulators and detectors. In this talk, I review our latest theoretical and experimental results concerning QE coupling to localized and propagating SP modes. In particular, the influence of gap SP resonators on the decay rate of closely located QEs and different decay contributions are discussed as well as the dynamics of resonant QE coupling to a localized SP that can also be used for the entanglement of two qubits. Furthermore, theoretical and experimental results demonstrating deterministic coupling of the emission of a single QE (created by a nitrogen vacancy embedded in a diamond nanoparticle) to channel SP modes, which are supported by a V-shaped waveguide cut in gold, are reported. It is argued that this approach can enable realistic and functional plasmonic circuitry and therefore, paves the way towards the development of efficient and long distance transfer of energy in integrated solid-state quantum systems.

Classical and quantum interactions in optical lattice systems
Speaker: Demetrios Christodoulides (Univ. of Central Florida, USA)
Time: 10:30 am – 11:00 am

Photonic lattices provide a versatile classical platform for observing a host of optical processes, both in the linear and nonlinear domain. In this talk, we provide an overview of recent activities in such arrangements with a special emphasis on quantum-inspired systems.

Session VI: Solid-State Quantum Systems II

Oct. 15 (Thur), 11:20 am – 12:50 pm in MRGN 121

Chair: Peter Reynolds (Army Research Office, USA)

Quantum nonlinear optics with nanophotonic systems

Speaker: Mikhail Lukin (Harvard Univ., USA)
Time: 11:20 am – 11:50 am
Realizing a deterministic interface between photons and coherent quantum emitters is an outstanding challenge in quantum science. Such interfaces are essential elements of quantum networks and enable unique nonlinear optical devices operating at the single-photon level. We demonstrate a quantum optical switch based on a silicon-vacancy (SiV) color center in a diamond nanophotonic device. In our approach, SiV centers are deterministically positioned in diamond photonic-crystal cavities via targeted silicon implantation. The device transmission is substantially suppressed by a single SiV, is nonlinear at the single-photon level, and can be controlled by switching the metastable state of an individual SiV. Quantum statistics of the transmission and fluorescence fields demonstrate optical switching with single-photons. This approach enables the realization of fully integrated, scalable nanophotonic quantum devices.

Engineering diamond color centers for quantum information and sensing

Speaker: Philip Hemmer (Texas A&M Univ., USA)
Time: 11:50 am – 12:20 pm
For over a decade diamond color centers like the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) have been investigated for applications ranging from quantum storage registers to room temperature quantum computers to quantum enhanced bio-sensors. Recently silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers in diamond have showed potential to replace the NV for applications requiring strong coupling between spins and photons, and also for molecule-sized bio-sensors. However the existing top-down fabrication approaches for these color centers are not very scalable. What is needed is a bottom-up approach wherein the NV (or SiV) plus its detailed surroundings are determined by chemistry (i.e. where the diamond is grown around a custom modified diamondoid molecule). Not only will this give superior NV-based quantum registers, but will allow engineering of new color centers to replace the NV, like the new super-high contrast optically detected magnetic resonance color centers, and possibly variations on the silicon-vacancy center. In this talk I will discuss preliminary experimental results toward this goal.

Diamond nanophotonics

Speaker: Marko Loncar (Harvard Univ., USA)
Time: 12:20 pm – 12:50 pm
Recent progress in the field of diamond photonics will be reviewed. In particular, I will present our work on diamond frequency combs and Raman lasers, as well as cavity QED experiments with atomic-like defects in diamond.

Session VII: Quantum Nanophotonics II

Oct. 15 (Thur), 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm in MRGN 121

Chair: Richard Hammond (Army Research Office, USA)

Electrical tuning of an optical antenna

Speaker: Mark Brongersma (Stanford Univ., USA)
Time: 2:00 pm – 2:30 pm
The scaling of active photonic devices to deep-submicron length-scales has been hampered by the fundamental law of diffraction and the absence of materials with sufficiently strong electrooptic effects. Here, we demonstrate a solid state electro-optical switching mechanism that can operate in the visible spectral range with an active volume of ~ 10-6 mm-3 or about 10-5 l3, i.e. comparable to the size of the smallest active electronic components. The switching mechanism relies on electrochemically displacing atoms inside the nanometer-scale gap between two crossed metallic wires forming a crosspoint junction. Such junctions afford extreme light concentration and display singular optical behavior upon formation of a conductive channel. We illustrate how this effect can be used to actively tune the resonances of a plasmonic antenna. The tuning mechanism is analyzed using a combination of electrical and optical measurements as well as electron energy loss (EELS) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM).

Selected quantum features of extreme metamaterials

Speaker: Nader Engheta (Univ. of Pennsylvania, USA)
Time: 2:30 pm – 3:00 pm
In recent years, we have been exploring various features and characteristics of light-matter interaction in extreme-parameter metamaterials, such as epsilon-near-zero (ENZ), mu-near-zero (MNZ), and epsilon-and-mu-near-zero (EMNZ) metastructures. Owing to their refractive index being near zero, such platforms exhibit unique properties of “stretched wavelength”, i.e., “long wavelengths” for high-frequency signals, resulting in approximately uniform phase across the structures. One of the consequences of this property is manifested in temporal sensitivity to frequency variation, while spatial robustness to space variation. These structures provide a fertile ground for unusual quantum behaviour in light-matter interaction. We have been exploring some of the quantum features of such ENZ and EMNZ structures, including the effects of ENZ and EMNZ on the spontaneous emission rate and decay dynamics of quantum emitters; as well as the spontaneous entanglement generation, the collective interactions and the Lamb shifts of two quantum emitters separated by ENZ or EMNZ structures, just to name a few. In this talk, we will present an overview of some of our ongoing efforts in this area.

Metamaterials for quantum sciences
Speakers: Xiang Zhang, Kevin O’Brien (UC Berkeley, USA)
Time: 3:00 pm – 3:30 pm
Metamaterials, man-made materials structured on a sub wavelength scale, have the potential to advance quantum photonics due to their exceptional control over light matter interactions. We will discuss our proposal and demonstration of a nonlinear metamaterial traveling wave parametric amplifier which achieves near unity quantum efficiency for single-photon level microwave measurements. In addition, we recently proposed quantum vacuum engineering over macroscopic distances using a metasurface. In particular, we engineered a strong radiative back-action between a trapped quantum emitter (atom/ion) and a metasurface which has applications for on-chip quantum information processing.

Quantum control of solids by strong fields

Speaker: Mark Stockman (Georgia State Univ., USA)
Time: 3:30 pm – 4:00 pm
We present a new class of phenomena in condensed matter optics when a strong optical field ∼1-3 V/Å adiabatically (reversibly) changes a solid within optical cycle [1-7]. Such a pulse drives ampere-scale currents in dielectrics and controls their properties, including optical absorption and reflection, extreme UV absorption, and generation of high harmonics [8] in a non-perturbative manner on a 100-as temporal scale. Applied to a metal, such a pulse causes an instantaneous and reversible loss of the metallic properties. We will also discuss our latest theoretical results on graphene that in a strong ultrashort pulse exhibits unique behavior [9, 10]. New phenomena are predicted for buckled two-dimensional solids, silicene and germanine [11]. These are fastest phenomena in optics unfolding within half period of light. They offer potential for petahertz-bandwidth signal processing, generation of high harmonics on a nanometer spatial scale, etc.

[1] M. Durach et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 086803 (2010).
[2] M. Durach et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 086602 (2011).
[3] A. Schiffrin et al., Nature 493, 70 (2013).
[4] M. Schultze et al., Nature 493, 75 (2013).
[5] V. Apalkov, and M. I. Stockman, Phys. Rev. B 88, 245438 (2013).
[6] V. Apalkov, and M. I. Stockman, Phys. Rev. B 86, 165118 (2012).
[7] F. Krausz, and M. I. Stockman, Nat. Phot. 8, 205 (2014).
[8] T. Higuchi, M. I. Stockman, and P. Hommelhoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 213901 (2014).
[9] H. K. Kelardeh, V. Apalkov, and M. I. Stockman, Phys. Rev. B 90, 085313 (2014).
[10] H. K. Kelardeh, V. Apalkov, and M. I. Stockman, Phys. Rev. B 91, 045439 (2015).
[11] H. K. Kelardeh, V. Apalkov, and M. I. Stockman, Phys. Rev. B 92, 045413 (2015).

Session VIII: Atomic and Molecular Optics II

Oct. 15 (Thur), 4:30 pm – 6:00 pm in MRGN 121

Chair: Andy Weiner (Purdue Univ., USA)

Entanglement and coherence in many-body dipolar systems

Speaker: Susanne Yelin (Univ. of Connecticut/Harvard Univ., USA)
Time: 4:30 pm – 5:00 pm
The presence of dipoles in atoms and molecules can nonlinearly change the coherent dynamics and entanglement structure in many-body situations. I will present examples for atomic and molecular systems.

Cold molecules: science and applications

Speaker: John Doyle (Harvard Univ., USA)
Time: 5:00 pm – 5:30 pm
In this talk I will give an overview of our recent experimental work. I will describe collision studies with cold polyatomic molecules, which includes investigations of the fundamental 'sticking' problem;  a method to definitively determine the chirality of gas phase molecules using spectroscopy; our efforts on trace detection of molecules using buffer-gas cooling and; the use of cold molecules to place a new limit on the electron electric dipole moment, which strongly constrains possible new physics at the TeV scale, similar to recent results from the LHC particle collider.

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